Descartes had also made light central to the mechanical philosophy of nature; the reality of light, he argued, consists of motion transmitted through a material medium. Newton fully accepted the mechanical nature of light, although he chose the atomistic alternative and held that light consists of material corpuscles in motion.
Hatch - University of Florida Newton, Sir IsaacEnglish natural philosopher, generally regarded as the most original and influential theorist in the history of science.
In addition to his invention of the infinitesimal calculus and a new theory of light and color, Newton transformed the structure of physical science with his three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation.
Three centuries later the resulting structure - classical mechanics - continues to be a useful but no less elegant monument to his genius.
Here Newton entered a new world, one he could eventually call his own. Although Cambridge was an outstanding center of learning, the spirit of the scientific revolution had yet to penetrate its ancient and somewhat ossified curriculum. And by all appearances his academic performance was undistinguished.
Since the university was closed for the next two years because of plague, Newton returned to Woolsthorpe in midyear. There, in the following 18 months, he made a series of original contributions to science.
In AprilNewton returned to Cambridge and, against stiff odds, was elected a minor fellow at Trinity. Success followed good fortune. In the next year he became a senior fellow upon taking his master of arts degree, and inbefore he had reached his 27th birthday, he succeeded Isaac Barrow as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics.
The duties of this appointment offered Newton the opportunity to organize the results of his earlier optical researches, and inshortly after his election to the Royal Society, he communicated his first public paper, a brilliant but no less controversial study on the nature of color.
After an initial skirmish, he quietly retreated. Nonetheless, in Newton ventured another yet another paper, which again drew lightning, this time charged with claims that he had plagiarized from Hooke. The charges were entirely ungrounded. Twice burned, Newton withdrew. InNewton suffered a serious emotional breakdown, and in the following year his mother died.
These studies, once an embarrassment to Newton scholars, were not misguided musings but rigorous investigations into the hidden forces of nature. While the mechanical philosophy reduced all phenomena to the impact of matter in motion, the alchemical tradition upheld the possibility of attraction and repulsion at the particulate level.
By combining action-at-a-distance and mathematics, Newton transformed the mechanical philosophy by adding a mysterious but no less measurable quantity, gravitational force. Ironically, Robert Hooke helped give it life. In NovemberHooke initiated an exchange of letters that bore on the question of planetary motion.
Sometime in earlyNewton appears to have quietly drawn his own conclusions. Meanwhile, in the coffeehouses of London, Hooke, Edmund Halley, and Christopher Wren struggled unsuccessfully with the problem of planetary motion.
Finally, in AugustHalley paid a legendary visit to Newton in Cambridge, hoping for an answer to his riddle: What type of curve does a planet describe in its orbit around the sun, assuming an inverse square law of attraction?
Although Newton had privately answered one of the riddles of the universe--and he alone possessed the mathematical ability to do so--he had characteristically misplaced the calculation. After further discussion he promised to send Halley a fresh calculation forthwith. In partial fulfillment of his promise Newton produced his De Motu of From that seed, after nearly two years of intense labor, the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica appeared.
Arguably, it is the most important book published in the history of science.
Although the Principia was well received, its future was cast in doubt before it appeared. But to no effect.
After publishing the Principia, Newton became more involved in public affairs. In he was elected to represent Cambridge in Parliament, and during his stay in London he became acquainted with John Locke, the famous philosopher, and Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, a brilliant young mathematician who became an intimate friend.
Inhowever, Newton suffered a severe nervous disorder, not unlike his breakdown of The cause is open to interpretation: Each factor may have played a role.
During his London years Newton enjoyed power and worldly success. His position at the Mint assured a comfortable social and economic status, and he was an active and able administrator. After the death of Hooke inNewton was elected president of the Royal Society and was annually reelected until his death.
In he published his second major work, the Opticks, based largely on work completed decades before. He was knighted in Although his creative years had passed, Newton continued to exercise a profound influence on the development of science.
His tenure as president has been described as tyrannical and autocratic, and his control over the lives and careers of younger disciples was all but absolute.Isaac Newton was an English scientist and mathematician, who discovered gravitation and Newtonian Mechanics.
Read this biography to find more on his initiativeblog.com Of Birth: Woolsthorpe Manor, United Kingdom. Newton, Sir Isaac (), English natural philosopher, generally regarded as the most original and influential theorist in the history of science.
In addition to his invention of the infinitesimal calculus and a new theory of light and color, Newton transformed the structure of physical science with his three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation. Isaac Newton, Biography, Information, Sources -Dr Robert A.
Hatch. S I R I S A A C N E W T O N Dr Robert A. Hatch - University of Florida: Newton, Sir Isaac (), English natural philosopher, generally regarded as the most original and influential theorist in the history of science. In addition to his invention of the infinitesimal.
Isaac Newton was a well-known English scientist. He accomplished a lot during his time and influenced the world a great deal. He is considered to have contributed more to science than any other person. Isaac Newton was born on January 4, in the tiny village of Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England.
His father, whose name was also Isaac Newton, was a farmer who died before Isaac Junior was born. Sir Isaac Newton PRS FRS (25 December – 20 March /27) wrote about the controversy in well-known book Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton, Newton was the second scientist to be knighted, after Sir Francis initiativeblog.com: Physics, Natural philosophy, Alchemy, Theology, Mathematics, Astronomy, Economics.