Types and causes of mental disorders Classification and epidemiology Psychiatric classification attempts to bring order to the enormous diversity of mental symptoms, syndromes, and illnesses that are encountered in clinical practice.
Table of Contents Classification Psychologists and psychiatrists have classified psychological disorders into categories.
Classification allows clinicians and researchers to describe disorders, predict outcomes, consider treatments, and encourage research into their etiology.
Insanity Insanity is not a diagnostic label that psychologists use. The law does not consider most people with psychological disorders to be insane.
People can use an insanity defense only if they were unable to distinguish right from wrong at the time they committed a crime. The DSM-IV uses a multi-axial system of classification, which means that diagnoses are made on several different axes or dimensions.
The DSM has five axes: Axis II records long-standing personality problems or mental retardation. Axis III records any medical conditions that might affect the patient psychologically. Axis IV records any significant psychosocial or environmental problems experienced by the patient.
Psychologists and Psychiatrists People sometimes use the words psychologist and psychiatrist interchangeably, but they are not the same. Psychologist is a broad term that refers to anyone with advanced training in psychology who conducts psychological testing, research, or therapy.
A psychiatrist has a medical degree and treats patients with mental and emotional disorders. A psychiatrist can also prescribe medication. Criticisms of the DSM Although the DSM is used worldwide and considered a very valuable tool for diagnosing psychological disorders, it has been criticized for several reasons: In earlier versions of the DSM, homosexuality was listed as a disorder.
Some critics argue that including relatively minor problems such as caffeine-induced sleep disorder in the DSM will cause people to liken these problems to serious disorders such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Other critics argue that giving a person a diagnostic label can be harmful because a label can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Some critics point out that the DSM makes the process of diagnosing psychological disorders seem scientific when, in fact, diagnosis is highly subjective.
In general, psychologists view the DSM as a valuable tool that, like all tools, has the potential for misuse. The DSM contains many categories of disorders, and the following sections will cover a few of these categories.
Culture and Psychological Disorders Most of the major disorders listed in the DSM are found worldwide, although cultural factors often influence the symptoms and course of disorders.
Culture-bound disorders, on the other hand, are limited to specific cultural contexts.The concept of mental disorder is at the foundation of psychiatry as a medical discipline, at the heart of scholarly and public disputes about which mental conditions should be classified as pathological and which as normal suffering or problems of living, and has .
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Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature. The classification is in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD).
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Classification of the Epilepsies has been updated to reflect our gain in understanding of the epilepsies and their underlying mechanisms following the major scientific advances that have taken place since the last ratified classification in The _____ is the name of the manual that was published in by the American Psychiatric Association for the major classification of psychological disorders in the United States.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).