Hide Images The idea that humans are naturally divided into distinct peoples, each of which deserves an independent state, is known as a.
New technologies and methods of financing enabled trans-Atlantic trade and altered previous patterns of exchange.
The ensuring new encounters spread culture, religion, new foods, and disease across the globe. Demographic changes were volatile, with some areas experiencing drastic changes because of the introduction of new foods while other areas, such as the Americas, were devastated with the introduction of new diseases.
In the context of the new global circulation of goods, there was in intensification of all existing regional trade networks that brought prosperity and economic disruption to the merchants and governments in the trading regions of the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Sahara, and overland Eurasia.
The voyage of Columbus inaugurated a network of global trade that connected both hemispheres. Silver from the New World was minted into the peso de ocho, a widely accepted currency that connected major trade systems. Despite this new level of global connectivity, this era saw major disruptions and changes in trade networks.
Attempts by Portugal and Spain to monopolize trade in the Indian Ocean led to the down fall of the Swahili cities and the fall of Malacca.
In Africa, the incorporation of West Africa into the Atlantic system drew the focus of trade from Trans-Saharan to the west.
The Atlantic System would emerge as the premier trade system in this era. European technological developments in cartography and navigation built on previous knowledge developed in the classical, Islamic, and Asian worlds.
The most significant change in global trade between and was the rise and involvement of the Europeans. Beginning with Portugal and Spain, European countries would commission the exploration, charting, and colonization of a huge portion of the world. The advancements that enabled them to do this, however, did not originate in a vacuum.
Europeans adapted, improved, and synthesized the use of technologies and knowledge deriving from many cultures. Islamic civilization had long possessed the need for astronomical and geographic knowledge.
Muslims schools were expected to pronounce daily prayer times, calculate the exact time of the holy month of Ramadan, and provide the faithful with the direction of Mecca for the purpose of prayer.
To address these religious matters they developed the astrolabe which enabled them to solve " types of problems in astronomy, geography, and trigonometry.
Cartography The sea voyages of the Europeans in this era could not have taken place without a revolution in the craft of cartography, or map making. European maps in the Middle Ages, called T-O maps because of their shape, were not intended as tools for navigation.
Hence they were qualitative maps intended to make a religious statement about the world from a Christian point of view. They declared what was religiously important but were useless in bringing sailors back to port.
Although writings of the Greek cartographer Ptolemy C. Cartography was concerned with making maps that resemble the features of geography as they actually existed rather than making a theological statement about the world. Merchants could now use maps to plot new routes to and from desired locations and their experiences and information was in turn applied to the latest maps.We hope your visit has been a productive one.
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