Nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communicationchronemic communicationgesturesbody languagefacial expressionseye contactand how one dresses. Nonverbal communication also relates to the intent of a message.
Department of Communication, Indiana State University 1.
Even today, there is no single agreed-upon definition of communication. In andFrank Dance looked at published definitions of communication in literature and said that the task of trying to develop a single definition of communication that everyone likes is like trying to nail jello to a wall.
Thirty years later, defining communication still feels like nailing jello to a wall. Aristotle thought it was extremely important to focus on the audience in communication exchanges. Even though people have been formally studying communication for a long time, it is still necessary to continue studying communication in order to improve.
We are not arguing that this definition of communication is the only one you should consider viable, but you will understand the content of this text better if you understand how we have come to define communication.
Shannon and Weaver proposed a Mathematical Model of Communication often called the Linear Model that serves as a basic model of communication.
This model suggests that communication is simply the transmission of a message from one source to another. Watching YouTube videos serves as an example of this.
You act as the receiver when you watch videos, receiving messages from the source the YouTube video. The sender is the initiator of the communication.
For example, when you text a friend, ask a teacher a question, or wave to someone you are the sender of a message. Receivers must decode interpret messages in ways that are meaningful for them. When this happens you must decode the verbal and nonverbal communication in ways that are meaningful to you.
The message can be intentional or unintentional, written or spoken, verbal or nonverbal, or any combination of these. For example, as you walk across campus you may see a friend walking toward you.
The most common channels humans use are verbal and nonverbal communication. Verbal communication relies on language and includes speaking, writing, and sign language. Nonverbal communication includes gestures, facial expressions, paralanguage, and touch. We also use communication channels that are mediated such as television or the computer which may utilize both verbal and nonverbal communication.
Using the greeting example above, the channels of communication include both verbal and nonverbal communication. Noise is external a jack hammer outside your apartment window or loud music in a nightcluband internal physical pain, psychological stress, or nervousness about an upcoming test.
External and internal noise make encoding and decoding messages more difficult. In this case, both internal and external noise influenced the communication exchange. Noise is in every communication context, and therefore no message is received exactly as it is transmitted by a sender because noise distorts it in one way or another.
A major criticism of the Linear Model of Communication is that it suggests communication only occurs in one direction. It also does not show how context, or our personal experiences, impact communication. Television serves as a good example of the linear model. Have you ever talked back to your television while you were watching it?
Maybe you were watching a sporting event or a dramatic show and you talked at the people on the television. Did they respond to you?
Television works in one direction. No matter how much you talk to the television it will not http: Now apply this idea to the communication in your relationships.
It seems ridiculous to think that this is how we would communicate with each other on a regular basis. This example shows the limits of the linear model for understanding communication, particularly human to human communication. Given the limitations of the Linear Model, Barnlund adapted the model to more fully represent what occurs in most human communication exchanges.
The Transactional Model demonstrates that communication participants act as senders and receivers simultaneously, creating reality through their interactions. Communication is not a simple one-way transmission of a message: The personal filters and experiences of the participants impact each communication exchange.
The Transactional Model demonstrates that we are simultaneously senders and receivers and that noise and personal filters always influence the outcomes of every communication exchange.
Additionally, it suggests that meaning is co-constructed between all parties involved in any given communication interaction. This notion of co-constructed meaning is drawn from the relational, social, and cultural contexts that make up our communication environments.From Aristotle to Obama: A Brief History of Communication.
While there are rich areas of study in animal communication and interspecies communication, our focus in this book is on human communication. A conceptual model of communication. (Reprinted with permission from Westley and MacLean, Jr., ) (a) Objects of orientation (X 1 X) in the sensory field of the receiver (B) are transmitted directly to him in abstracted form (XZ X 3) after a process of selection from among all Xs, such selection being based at least in part on the needs and problems of B.
The first major model for communication was introduced by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories in The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies.
Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and . Transactional Model Concept & Example. Transactional model is the process of continuous change and transformation where every component is changing such as .
Transactional Model Concept & Example. Transactional model is the process of continuous change and transformation where every component is changing such as the people, their environments and the medium used. From Aristotle to Obama: A Brief History of Communication. While there are rich areas of study in animal communication and interspecies communication, our focus in this book is on human communication.