This means that in most cases, Psi will not implement a feature unless there is an accepted standard for it in the XMPP community. Doing so ensures that Psi will be compatible, stable, and predictable.
Antecedents[ edit ] The National Telegraphic Review and Operators Guide in April documented the use of the number 73 in Morse code to express "love and kisses" later reduced to the more formal "best regards". Dodge's Manual in documented the reintroduction of "love and kisses" as the number Gajadhar and Green comment that both Morse code abbreviations are more succinct than modern abbreviations such as LOL.
It is to be appended, with the full stop, to every jocular or ironical sentence". Emoticons had already come into use in sci-fi fandom in the s,  although there seems to have been a lapse in cultural continuity between the communities.
The piece, featuring typewriter-generated artwork credited to "Royal Portable", was entirely made up of repurposed typography, including a capital letter P having a bigger bust than a capital I, a lowercase b and d discussing their pregnancies, an asterisk on top of a letter to indicate the letter had just come inside from a snowfall, and a classroom of lowercase n's interrupted by a lowercase h "raising its hand".
Inthe " smiley face", a yellow button with two black dots representing eyes and an upturned thick curve representing a mouth was created by freelance artist Harvey Ball.
It was realized on order of a large insurance company as part of a campaign to bolster the morale of its employees and soon became a big hit. This smiley presumably inspired many later emoticons; the most basic graphic emoticon that depicts this is, in fact, a small yellow smiley face.
Loufrani was the first person to trademark the symbol, in Nicolas developed hundreds of different emoticons, including 3D versions.
His designs were registered at the United States Copyright Office in and appeared online as. InWalmart opposed the registration, citing a likelihood of confusion between the Loufrani smiley and a smiley face Walmart had been using since Seeking to prevent Walmart from using any smiley face design, Nicolas Loufrani next sued Walmart in federal court inwhile claiming that his smiley face was "readily distinguishable" from Walmart's.
The case was closed in when the two parties agreed to settle out of court.
The terms of the settlement were undisclosed, but Walmart continued to use its smiley design intermittently and returned to using it in a major marketing role in This developed into a sophisticated set, particularly in combination with superscript and subscript.
Actually, it is probably more economical to mark things that are NOT jokes, given current trends.
Western style[ edit ] Usually, emoticons in Western style have the eyes on the left, followed by nose and the mouth. The two character version: Common Western examples[ edit ] Main article: List of emoticons The most basic emoticons are relatively consistent in form, but each of them can be transformed by being rotated making them tiny ambigramswith or without a hyphen nose.
There are also some possible variations to emoticons to get new definitions, like changing a character to express a new feeling, or slightly change the mood of the emoticon. Weeping can be written as: A blush can be expressed as: Others include wink ;a grin: P, such as when blowing a raspberry.
O is also sometimes used to depict shock. A broad grin is sometimes shown with crinkled eyes to express further amusement; XD and the addition of further "D" letters can suggest laughter or extreme amusement e.
D for an evil grin, which can be, again, used in reverse, for an unhappy angry face, in the shape of D: In most circles it has become acceptable to omit the hyphen, whether a colon or an equal sign is used for the eyes,  but in some areas of usage people still prefer the larger, more traditional emoticon: One linguistic study has indicated that the use of a nose in an emoticon may be related to the user's age.
It is also common for the user to replace the rounded brackets used for the mouth with other, similar brackets, such as ] instead of. Some variants are also more common in certain countries due to keyboard layouts. Diacritical marks are sometimes used. O meaning that one is surprised and: D meaning that one is very happy respectively.
Some emoticons may be read right to left instead, and in fact can only be written using standard ASCII keyboard characters this way round; for example D: The asterisks indicate the eyes; the central character, commonly an underscorethe mouth; and the parentheses, the outline of the face.
Different emotions can be expressed by changing the character representing the eyes: The emphasis on the eyes in this style is reflected in the common usage of emoticons that use only the eyes, e. Parentheses are sometimes replaced with braces or square bracketse.
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