Catulla and petrarch

It is believed that he was born in Verona in 84 B.

He was taken to Avignon inand there he spent most of his life untilexcept for a period as a student of law at Montpellier and Bologna and several long journeys to Italy.

Petrarch held several ecclesiastical benefices and also enjoyed the patronage of the Colonna and the Visconti. Petrarch's fame rests first on his Italian poems and second on his work as a scholar and Latin writer. His Latin writings include poems, orations, invectives, historical works, a large body of letters, and a few moral treatises.

Among the treatises we may mention especially De Remediis Utriusque Fortunae On the remedies of good and bad fortune;De Secreto Conflictu Curarum Mearum, better known as Secretum On the secret conflict of my worries; completed beforeDe Vita Solitaria On the solitary life;and De Sui Ipsius et Multorum Ignorantia On his own and many other people's ignorance; Petrarch was no philosopher in the technical sense, and even his treatises on moral subjects are loosely written and lack a firm structure or method.

Much of his thought consists of tendencies and aspirations rather than of developed ideas or doctrines, and it is inextricably linked with his learning, reading, tastes, and feelings.

Nevertheless, it would be wrong to underestimate Petrarch's impact Catulla and petrarch the history of Western thought. He was the first great representative of Renaissance humanism, if not its founder; as a poet, scholar, and personality, he had a vast reputation during his lifetime and for several subsequent centuries.

In many ways he set the pattern for the taste, outlook, and range of interests that determined the thought of Renaissance humanism down to the sixteenth century.

Petrarch was regarded, by himself and by his contemporaries, not only as a poet, orator, and historian but also as a moral philosopher, and many of his attitudes were to receive from some of his successors the intellectual and philosophical substance which they seem to lack in Petrarch's own work.

One important aspect of Petrarch's thought that was to be developed by many later humanists was his hostility toward Scholasticism—that is, the university learning of the later Middle Ages. He attacked astrology Catulla and petrarch well as logic and jurisprudence and dedicated entire works to criticizing the physicians and the Aristotelian philosophers.

These attacks, though sweeping and suggestive, are highly personal and subjective and rarely enter into specific issues or arguments.

When Petrarch rejects the authority of Aristotle or of his Arabic commentator Averroes, he does so from personal dislike, not from objective grounds; when he criticizes such theories as the eternity of the world, the attainment of perfect happiness during the present life, or the so-called theory of the double truth that is, of the separate validity of Aristotelian philosophy and of Christian theologyhis main argument is that these doctrines are contrary to the Christian religion.

Yet the positive value that Petrarch opposed to medieval science was neither a new science nor mere religious faith but the study of classical antiquity. All his life Petrarch was an avid reader of the ancient Latin writers; he copied, collected, and annotated their works and tried to correct their texts and appropriate their style and ideas.

He felt a strong nostalgia for the political greatness of the Roman Republic and Empire, and the hope to restore this greatness was the central political idea that guided him in his dealings with the pope and the emperor, with the Roman revolutionary Cola di Rienzo, and with the various Italian governments of his time.

Of the ancient Latin writers, Cicero and Seneca were among Petrarch's favorites. His polemic against dialectic and other branches of scholastic learning and his emphasis on moral problems seem to be modeled after the more moderate skepticism which Seneca expresses in his Moral Epistles with reference to the subtle dialectic of the older Stoics.

To Seneca, Petrarch owes his taste for moral declamation and the Stoic notions that appear in his writings—the conflict between virtue and fortune, the contrast between reason and the four basic passions, and the close link between virtue and happiness.

Even greater is Petrarch's enthusiasm for Cicero, to whom he owes the form of the dialogue and much of his information on Greek philosophy. We might even say that Petrarch and other humanists owe to their imitation of Cicero and Seneca not only the elegance of their style, but also the elusive and at times superficial manner of their reasoning.

Petrarch could not fail to notice the numerous references to Greek sources in the writings of his favorite Roman authors. He made an attempt to learn Greek, and although he did not progress far enough to read the ancient Greek writers in the original, his awareness of Greek philosophy and literature did affect his outlook and orientation.

He owned a Greek manuscript of Plato and read the Timaeus and Phaedo, which were available to him in Latin translations. He also gathered information on Plato in Cicero and other Roman authors and cited some Platonic doctrines.

However, more important than these occasional references to specific theories is Petrarch's general conviction that Plato was the greatest of all philosophers, greater than Aristotle, who had been the chief authority of the later medieval thinkers.

Petrarch assigned second place to Aristotle, but he was far from holding him in contempt. He knew especially Aristotle's Ethics, and he repeatedly suggested that the original Aristotle may be superior to his medieval translators and commentators. Petrarch thus pointed the way to a new attitude toward Aristotle that was to take shape in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Catulla and petrarch

Aristotle was to be studied in the original Greek text and in the company of other Greek philosophers and writers; his medieval Latin translations were to be replaced by new humanist translations, and his medieval Arabic and Latin commentators were to give way to the ancient Greek commentators and to those modern Renaissance interpreters who were able to read and understand Aristotle in his original text.

Thus, Petrarch was the prophet of Renaissance Aristotelianism, as he had been of Renaissance Platonism. Although Petrarch opposed the classical authors to the medieval tradition, he was by no means completely detached from his immediate past. Christian faith and piety occupy a central position in his thought and writings, and there is no reason to doubt his sincerity.

Whenever a conflict between religion and ancient philosophy might arise, he is ready to stand by the teachings of the former. The Secretum, in which Petrarch subjects his most intimate feelings and actions to religious scrutiny, is a thoroughly Christian work, and his treatise De Remediis Utriusque Fortunae is equally Christian, even specifically medieval.

His treatise De Otio Religioso On the leisure of the monks belongs to the ascetic tradition, and even Petrarch's polemic against Scholasticism in the name of a genuine and simple religion continues or resumes that strand of medieval religious thought which found expression in Peter Damian and St.


In his treatise on his ignorance, Petrarch goes so far as to oppose his own piety to the supposedly irreligious views of his scholastic opponents. This shows that it was at least possible to reject Scholasticism and remain a convinced Christian, and to reconcile classical learning with religious faith.

In accordance with this attitude, Petrarch liked to read the early Christian writers, especially the Church Fathers, along with the pagan classics but without the company of the scholastic theologians.Catullus is renowned for his love poems, particularly the 25 poems addressed to a woman named Lesbia, of which Catullus 5 is perhaps the most famous.

Catulla and petrarch

Scholars generally believe that Lesbia was a pseudonym for Clodia Metelli and that the name Lesbia is likely an homage to . The worship of Priapus amongst the Romans was derived from the Egyptians, who, under the form of Apis, the Sacred Bull, adored the generative Power of Nature; and as the syllable pri or pre signifies (we are assured) principle, production, natural or original source, the word Priapus may be translated principle of production or of fecundation.

Petrarch. The Italian poet Petrarch (), or Francesco Petrarca, is best known for the Iyric poetry of his Canzoniere and is considered one of the greatest love poets of world literature.

A scholar of classical antiquity, he was the founder of humanism. andPeter Hughes Petrarch Translation is one of the more obvious ways a poem may be transformed, changing the very form of words from that of one language into those of Tiffany Atkinson s sequence Catulla which re-genders Catullus as a con dential and conspiratorial girl-gossip.

TRANSLATION ASTRANSFORMATION: TIM ATKINS ANDPETER HUGHES. Mar 11,  · Formosissima quae fuere vel sunt, sed vilissima quae fuere vel sunt, o quam te fieri, Catulla, vellem formosam minus aut magis pudicam!

(The most beautiful things that have been and still are, they turn out to be the vilest things that have been and still are: o how I wished for you, Catulla, to be a less beautiful and more chaste girl!). Petrarch was a poet and scholar whose humanist philosophy set the stage for the Renaissance.

He is also considered one of the fathers of the modern Italian language. People.

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