It also says that children exposed to violence and crime may later resolve conflict in a violent manner and may become desensitized to it. Parents and caregivers can help a child learn to live a healthy life, thereby reducing the effects that crime and violence can have on a school-age child. Ways Kids Are Exposed to Violence A child can be exposed to violence and crime in several ways such as exposure at home, at school or through various media.
Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect The consequences of maltreatment can be devastating. For over 30 years, clinicians have described the effects of child abuse and neglect on the physical, psychological, cognitive, and behavioral development of children.
Physical consequences range from minor injuries to severe brain damage and even death. Psychological consequences range from chronic low self-esteem to severe dissociative states.
The cognitive effects of abuse range from attentional problems and learning disorders to severe organic brain syndromes. Behaviorally, the consequences of abuse range from poor peer relations all the way to extraordinarily violent behaviors. Thus, the consequences of abuse and neglect affect the victims themselves and the society in which they live.
Many complexities challenge our understanding of factors and relationships that exacerbate or mitigate the consequences of abusive experiences.
The majority of children who are abused do not show signs of extreme disturbance. Research has suggested a relationship between child maltreatment and a variety of short- and long-term consequences, but considerable uncertainty and debate remain about the effects of child victimization on children, adolescents, and adults.
The relationship between the causes and consequences of child maltreatment is particularly problematic, since some factors such as low intelligence in the child may help stimulate abusive behavior by the parent or caretaker, but low intelligence can also be a consequence of abusive experiences in early childhood.
The scientific study of child maltreatment and its consequences is in its Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect.
The National Academies Press. Until recently, research on the consequences of physical and sexual child abuse and neglect has been based primarily on retrospective studies of adolescents or adults that are subject to clinical bias and inaccurate recall Aber and Cicchetti, Research on the consequences of abuse is also challenged by the hidden nature of much abuse and because these experiences may not come to anyone's attention until years after they occur.
Maltreatment often occurs in the presence of multiple problems within a family or social environment, including poverty, violence, substance abuse, and unemployment. Distinguishing consequences that are associated directly with the experience of child maltreatment itself rather than other social disorders is a daunting task for the research investigator.
Research on the consequences of child maltreatment is also uneven and, as a result, we do not yet understand the consequences on children of particular types or multiple forms of abuse.
In recent years, much attention has been focused on the consequences of child sexual abuse, especially the adolescent and adult sexual behavior of the victim.
Less attention has been given to the short- and long-term consequences of child neglect and physical abuse. Only recently has public awareness expanded to include recognition of the psychological consequences that stem from even the most subtle forms of emotional maltreatment.
Some experts now contend that the psychological or emotional components of abuse and neglect are the factor most responsible for the destructive consequences of all types of maltreatment Brassard et al. Nor do we yet know the importance of the particular timing, intensity, and context of abuse on the outcome.
Factors such as the age and developmental status of the child may influence the outcomes of maltreatment experiences.
Effects that appear at only one life stage, whether immediately following the maltreatment or later, are often different from those that persist throughout life.
What may appear to be adaptive or functional at one point in development avoiding an abusive parent or desensitizing oneself against feelings may later compromise the person's ability to draw on and respond to personal relationships in an adaptive and flexible way.
Given the wide variations reported in the research literature, certain intrinsic strengths and vulnerabilities within a child and the child's environment may affect the extent to which abuse will have adverse consequences.
Disordered patterns of adaptation may lie dormant, only to appear during times of stress or in conjunction with particular circumstances Sroufe and Rutter, The abused child's unstable, often dangerous, home environment islikely to limit the child's development of social skills,self-confidence, and experience of positive interactions (Herrenkohl etal., .
forms of violence against children, and will be presented to the United Nations General Assembly in This is the first global report to document the impact of domestic violence on initiativeblog.com concludes with key actions that must be taken to better support and protect the forgotten victims of violence in the home.
Myth: The younger the child, the less the child will be affected by exposure to violence. Young children are not immune to the effects of violence. Clinical experience suggests that young children are deeply affected by witnessing violence, particularly if the perpetrator or victim of violence is a family member.
How to reduce children’s exposure to violence. Home visiting for first-time mothers and comprehensive early education and family support have been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of child abuse and neglect. See What Works under the DataBank indicator, Child Maltreatment.
Also see U.S. Department of Justice. (). Impact of Violence on Child Development. There is a myth that the younger a child is who has witnessed or been the subject of violence, the less impact the event will have on the child.
The reality is that young children do not forget what they have witnessed and that they have an extraordinary capacity to recall traumatic events.
A child may be directly targeted by the perpetrator and suffer physical abuse, sexual abuse and/or serious neglect. It has been more than 2 decades since the overlap between domestic violence and child abuse was identified; men who abuse their partners are also likely to assault their children.