Teaching word meanings should be a way for students to define their world, to move from light to dark, to a more fine-grained description of the colors that surround us.
Content-Free Critical Thinking Tests to Assess Programs and Courses Several commercially available tests attempt to assess critical thinking in a content-free way; that is, they do not assess thinking in nursing or biology or business management courses but instead assess the student's recognition of the use of evidence to support a claim, the validity of reasoning, logical fallacies, soundness of interpretations, drawing conclusions, and the like.
A review of critical thinking tests can be found at the web site of the National Postsecondary Education Cooperative US Department of Education at http: Often such tests are used by departments to assess whether their programs or courses have improved students' critical thinking.
Departments typically use the A version as a pre-test before students begin the program or course and the B version as a post-test.
Critical thinking occurs in the context of a course, so there is a a trend for developing context-specific thinking tests. Insight Assessment has a test that measures reasoning in the health sciences. Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric Peter Facione and Noreen Facione have developed the four-level Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric to assess the critical thinking skills and some of the dispositions identified by the Delphi project as these skills are demonstrated by by students in essays, projects, presentations, clinical practices, and such.
The Facione and Facione Holistic Scoring Rubric is copied below and is available free, with a page of instructions, at http: Accurately interprets evidence, statements, graphics, questions, etc. Identifies the salient arguments reasons and claims pro and con.
Thoughtfully analyzes and evaluates major alternative points of view. Draws warranted, judicious, non-fallacious conclusions. Justifies key results and procedures, explains assumptions and reasons.
Fair-mindedly follows where evidence and reasons lead. Identifies relevant arguments reasons and claims pro and con. Offers analyses and evaluations of obvious alternative points of view. Justifies some results or procedures, explains reasons.
Fairmindedly follows where evidence and reasons lead. Does most or many of the following: Misinterprets evidence, statements, graphics, questions, etc. Fails to identify strong, relevant counter-arguments. Ignores or superficially evaluates obvious alternative points of view.
Justifies few results or procedures, seldom explains reasons. Regardless of the evidence or reasons maintains or defends views based on self-interest or preconceptions. Offers biased interpretations of evidence, statements, graphics, questions, information, or the points of view of others.
Fails to identify or hastily dismisses strong, relevant counter-arguments.
Ignores or superficially evaluates obvious alternative points of view Argues using fallacious or irrelevant reasons, and unwarranted claims.
Exhibits close-mindedness or hostility to reason. Analytical Critical Thinking Scoring Rubrics Analytical rubrics provide more information than holistic rubrics. The holistic rubric illustrated above combines five different kinds of thinking into a single category.
Instead of the holistic rubric's lumping of several different traits into one category, an analytical rubric separates them. A lthough they take more time to score because the raters sometimes have to examine the essay, project, or performance more than once, analytical rubrics can be useful to departments assessing student's thinking skills in assignments and projects in multi-section courses to determine which areas of student thinking need more attention in the course.
The WSU rubric specifies only the highest and lowest levels of performances, leaving it to faculty adapting it to describe the intervening levels.
Emerging Mastering Does not identify and summarize the problem, is confused or identifies a different and inappropriate problem. Does not identify or is confused by the issue, or represents the issue inaccurately.
Identifies the main problem and subsidiary, embedded, or implicit aspects of the problem, and identifies them clearly, addressing their relationships to each other.Designing the Organization: From Strategy to Organizational Structure from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
In this course you will understand how firms are organized, what factors must be taken into account in making critical design. This will help the final structure satisfy both the employees and the employer. Equity Theory The Equity Theory explains that employees compare their job and pay to other positions within their internal environment, as well as jobs in their external environment.
The Nature of Order: An Essay on the Art of Building and the Nature of the Universe, Book 1 - The Phenomenon of Life (Center for Environmental Structure, Vol.
9) [Christopher Alexander] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. What is happening when a place in the world has life? And what is happening when it does not?
In Book 1 of this four-volume work. Designing Organizational Structure A. Organizing is the process by which managers establish the structure of working relationships among employees to allow them to achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively.
Designing a Pay Structure A pay structure for a company refers to the method the company uses to administer its pay philosophy. In designing a pay structure, the human resource (HR) management must first create job descriptions for all the available positions in the company.
Essay-based tutoring systems, such as Summary Street (Wade-Stein and Kintsch, ) or CLICK (de la Chica et al., b), interact with students who.