The very concept itself is contradictory, but is still a topic worth exploring. If a person were to simply go about their life believing everything they ever heard or experienced to be true, they could be deceived without their own knowledge. The theory of knowledge in sociology it is used to refer to the procedures by which sociological knowledge is acquired. The theory of knowledge especially with regard to its methods validity and scope and the distinction between justified belief and opinion.
Premature as well asprogressive occlusive vascular disease is common.
Mutations or polymorphisms in the gene of theenzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR Journal alysisi, as CT, AC and GA, are associ-ated with hyperhomocysteinemia and possibly with elevated risk for vascular diseases. This studywas conducted on 89 individuals with renal failure on dialysis to determine the allelic and genotypicfrequencies of the mutations in the MTHFR gene and hyperhomocysteinemia.
Blood samples werecolleted for determination of homocysteine and DNA. This study confirmed the high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients ondialysis, which was diagnosed in 76 patients The authors concluded that there was no influence ofthe polymorphisms on homocysteine levels in these patients.
March 20, ; revised: June 6, ; accepted: June 7, IntroductionHomocysteine Hcy is a sulfur-containing amino acid gen-erated as an intermediate product of methionine metabo-lism. There are two remethylation pathways. The first islinked to the folate cycle in which 5,methylenetetrahy-drofolate reductase MTHFR forms 5-methyltetrahydrofo-late, which serves as a methyl donor to remethylate Hcy viamethionine synthase, a vitamin Bdependent enzyme.
The other remethylation pathway is catalyzed by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Hcy has atherogenicproperties on blood vessels and elevated total plasma Hcy isan independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease [1, 2].
The common approach to search for genetic markers ofincreased susceptibility is to study candidate genes for asso-ciation with the disease.
Recently, hyperhomocysteinemiahas emerged as an independent cardiovascular risk factor insubjects with chronic renal failure disease. Moderate hyper-homocysteinemia is present from the early stages of renalfailure and increases in parallel to the deterioration of renalfunction [3, 4]. Mutation in the MTHFR gene reduces its enzymaticactivity and causes hyperhomocysteinemia, as well as vas-cular complications.
A common polymorphism in MTHFR gene, in which acytidine residue at nucleotide position is replaced bythymidine CThas been described. This results in thesubstitution of an alanine by valine, which causes theenzyme to become thermolabile and less active [7, 8].
Inpatients with renal disease this mutation is linked to ele-vated total plasma Hcy levels in homozygotes comparedwith heterozygotes or normal individuals . The AC mutation in MTHFR gene, consisted bytransition from A to C in nucleotide and resulting inalteration of a glutamate codon for alanine, was reportedlater [12, 13].
Like CT mutation, this mutation alsoresults in a reduction of enzymatic activity, which is moreCorrespondence: A new mutation in exon 11 was recently identified.Scientific Research Publishing is an academic publisher with more than open access journal in the areas of science, technology and medicine.
It also publishes . Allyis Inc. Your first and last stop for consulting and project services. We believe in combining Greenshoring Experience Puget Sound Business Journal Spirit of Caring Award United Way of King County Contact Us Now!
() [email protected] Laparoscopic ureterolysis with omental wrap for idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis Article in BJU International (5) · September with Reads DOI: /jXx.
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis (ASC) is the leading primary journal in organic, organometallic, and applied chemistry.. The high impact of ASC can be attributed to the unique focus of the journal, which publishes exciting new results from academic and industrial labs on efficient, practical, and environmentally friendly organic synthesis.
The journal is the official publication of the Forum D'Analystes. Established in in Chennai (Tamil Nadu, India), the Forum is an autonomous international organisation which promotes the study of mathematical analysis, publishes research, promotes computational techniques in the study of analysis and organises meetings and workshops in the.
LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in The Catcher in the Rye, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Kestler, Justin. "The Catcher in the Rye Chapter " LitCharts. LitCharts LLC, 22 Jul Web. 9 Nov Kestler, Justin. "The Catcher in the Rye Chapter