A white Wistar lab rat In Rat Park, the rats could drink a fluid from one of two drop dispensers, which automatically recorded how much each rat drank. One dispenser contained a morphine solution and the other plain tap water. Alexander designed a number of experiments to test the rats' willingness to consume the morphine. The Seduction Experiment involved four groups of rats.
Each subject experienced all three settings, for 3 minutes in each mode, in random order during a 15 minute session. After experiencing each mode, subjects rated their state of relaxation on a scale of 1 almost asleep to 10 very excited.
An analysis of variance on the entire sampling resulted in an F value - A statistically significant difference was noted for relaxation ratings for Fast Pulsation, compared with ratings for either Slow Pulsation or Stationary Pressure; these latter two modes were not different from one another.
One study Imamura et al. Hyperactivity was found reduced in 4 subjects, and the machine had no effect on 5 children. One child first began to hug the therapist after using the machine.
The parents of a Psychopharmacology research paper, high-functioning autistic boy reported that they could tell the days on which he had used the machine by observing his calmness.
When the squeeze machine was not available to him, this boy learned to roll up in a quilt and then roll on the floor for 15 to 45 Psychopharmacology research paper every day to obtain adequate pressure stimulation. Sessions with the machine were relatively unstructured, and usage usually was less than two minutes daily.
There appeared to be a relationship between longer duration of squeeze machine usage and beneficial effects. Some children in their studies appear to have failed to use the squeeze machine long enough to have an effect.
Cattle being held in a squeeze chute, while waiting in line for veterinary attention, often appeared somewhat agitated during the waiting; some of the animals, however, seemed to relax once pressure was applied to large areas of their bodies. Deep pressure stimulation of diverse forms have been reported to have calming effects in a variety of animals.
For example, stroking and scratching the flank of a pig has long been known to induce inactivity Marcuse and Mooreand pigs spontaneously seek body contact against a solid surface Hartsock Pressure applied to both sides of a pig in a padded V-shaped trough will induce sleep and relaxation Grandin et al.
In rabbits, gentle but firm pinching of the skin with padded clips will lead initially to arousal, followed by relaxed muscle tone, drowsiness, and deactivation of electroencephalogram EEG patterns Kumazawa Likewise, a "squeeze machine" for chicks, constructed from hollowed-out foam rubber blocks, reduces separation distress Jack Panksepp, Bowling Green University, personal communication.
In cats, rubbing and gentle pinching of a paw will decrease tonic activity in the dorsal column nuclei and somatosensory cortex Melzack et al.
In infant animals and brain-damaged humanspressure exerted on the face by an elastic bandage wrapped around the head will override the vestibular system and cause the head to fall back Teitlebaum Wrapping a bandage around the torso of a cat causes the hind quarters to topple Teitlebaum The reactions of cattle to being restrained in a squeeze-restraining device are very similar to people in the squeeze machine.
Strong pressure initially causes cattle to relax, but will lead to struggling and discomfort when the animal habituates. Habituation occurs more quickly in cattle being held against unpadded metal surfaces. Pressure must be decreased if the animal is held in a chute for more than two minutes.
Recently I operated a cattle-restraining chute that was fitted with hydraulic controls; these provide more precise control over the amount of pressure and the speed of movement of the apparatus.TPSYCH Introduction to Psychology (5) I&S Surveys major areas of psychological science, including human social behavior, personality, psychological disorders and treatment, learning, memory, human development, biological influences, and research methods.
Related . A study confirms the popular theory that alcohol can help people speak a new language with better fluency and pronunciation. Every year, psychologists publish a staggering amount of research—it’s impossible to read it all.
Still, I gave it a shot—and here are the six papers I found most fascinating. “Estimating.
A List Of Original Psychopharmacology Term Paper Topics. Psychopharmacology is defined as the study of drugs and their relationship with the mind and behavior.
Jun 30, · What do you think of the research paper topic "How do you pull yourself out of a panic attack?" Answer: You have a very good idea to research "panic attacks" because there is a lot of Reviews: 4.
Psychosomatic Medicine, founded in , is the official organ of the American Psychosomatic Society. It publishes experimental and clinical studies dealing with various aspects of the relationships among social, psychological, and behavioral factors and bodily processes in humans and animals.
It is an international, interdisciplinary journal devoted to experimental and clinical investigation.