The notion that differences among societies will decrease over time can be found in many works of eighteenth and nineteenth century social thinkers, from the prerevolutionary French philosophes and the Scottish moral philosophers through de Tocqueville, Toennies, Maine, Marx, Spencer, Weber, and Durkheim Weinberg ; Baum In sociological discourse since the s, the term convergence theory has carried a more specific connotation, referring to the hypothesized link between economic development and concomitant changes in social organization, particularly work and industrial organization, class structure, demographic patterns, characteristics of the family, education, and the role of government in assuring basic social and economic security. The core notion of convergence theory is that as nations achieve similar levels of economic development they will become more alike in terms of these and other aspects of social life.
North America million According to projections, the world population will continue to grow until at leastwith the population reaching 9 billion in  and some predictions putting the population as high as 11 billion in Walter Greiling projected in the s that world population would reach a peak of about nine billion, in the 21st century, and then stop growing, after a readjustment of the Third World and a sanitation of the tropics.
The world population is currently growing by approximately 74 million people per year. Current United Nations predictions estimate that the world population will reach 9.
By contrast, the population of the more developed regions will remain mostly unchanged, at 1. In the medium variant, global fertility is projected to decline further to 2. China would be higher still in this list were it not for its one-child policy.
Global life expectancy at birth is expected to continue rising from 65 years in — to 75 years in — In the more developed regions, the projection is to 82 years by Among the least developed countries, where life expectancy today is just under 50 years, it is expected to increase to 66 years by — The population of 51 countries or areas is expected to be lower in than in During —, the net number of international migrants to more developed regions is projected to be 98 million.
Because deaths are projected to exceed births in the more developed regions by 73 million during —, population growth in those regions will largely be due to international migration. In —, net migration in 28 countries either prevented population decline or doubled at least the contribution of natural increase births minus deaths to population growth.
Birth rates are now falling in a small percentage of developing countrieswhile the actual populations in many developed countries would fall without immigration. In there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million; but by this had risen to agglomerations of more than one million.
Projections indicate that most urban growth over the next 25 years will be in developing countries. In many poor countries, slums exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care.
Greater Tokyo already has 35 million, more than the entire population of Canada at There have been three major technological revolutions — the tool-making revolution, the agricultural revolutionand the industrial revolution — all of which allowed humans more access to food, resulting in subsequent population explosions.
For example, the use of tools, such as bow and arrow, allowed primitive hunters greater access to more high energy foods e. Similarly, the transition to farming about 10, years ago greatly increased the overall food supply, which was used to support more people.
Food production further increased with the industrial revolution as machinery, fertilizersherbicidesand pesticides were used to increase land under cultivation as well as crop yields. Today, starvation is caused by economic and political forces rather than a lack of the means to produce food.
Traditionally, the fertility rate is strongly influenced by cultural and social norms that are rather stable and therefore slow to adapt to changes in the social, technological, or environmental conditions.
For example, when death rates fell during the 19th and 20th century — as a result of improved sanitation, child immunizations, and other advances in medicine — allowing more newborns to survive, the fertility rate did not adjust downward, resulting in significant population growth.
Until the s, seven out of ten children died before reaching reproductive age. This dates back to prehistoric times, when agricultural methods were first developed, and continues to the present day, with fertilizers, agrochemicals, large-scale mechanization, genetic manipulation, and other technologies.
The richest farmland was plowed and the richest mineral ore mined first. Demographic transition and Sub-replacement fertility The theory of demographic transition held that, after the standard of living and life expectancy increase, family sizes and birth rates decline.
However, as new data has become available, it has been observed that after a certain level of development HDI equal to 0.McDermott, Gerald Robert: Civil Religion in the American Revolutionary Period: An Historiographic Analysis: XVIII: 4: McDonald, H.
Dermot: Hope: Human and Christian. Nov 07, · MCAT topics list by Gold Standard MCAT to guide students on what to study for the exam.
Education is Necessary for Society to Function - Education is a powerful tool that supplies a plethora of information to anyone who is willing to learn. Sep 06, · MCAT topics list by Gold Standard MCAT to guide students on what to study for the exam. About this journal. SAGE Open is a peer-reviewed, "Gold" open access journal from SAGE that publishes original research and review articles in an interactive, open access initiativeblog.comes may span the full spectrum of the social and behavioral sciences and the humanities.
This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The McDonaldization of Society, Revised New Century Edition, discusses how McDonaldization and the broader process of globalization (in a new Chapter 8) are spreading more widely and more deeply into various social institutions such as education, medicine, the criminal justice system, and more.