First off, please listen to this book. There are many excerpts from Bryan Doerries' translation of ancient greek plays which are performed, not merely read, by the narrator Adam Driver.
Legend attributes the invention of the dithyrambthe lyrical ancestor of tragedyto the poet Arion of Lesbos in the 7th or 6th century bce, but it was not until the creation of the Great Dionysia in Athens in that tragic drama established itself.
The Dionysiac festivals were held in honour of Dionysusa god concerned with fertilitywineand prophecy. Dionysiac celebrations, held in the spring, were traditionally occasions for frenzy, sexual license, and ecstatic behaviour welcoming the return of fertility to the land after the winter reflected dramatically in the Bacchants by Euripides.
The Great Dionysia was a more formal affair, with its competition in tragedy, but its religious purpose is often cited as a pointer to the origin of drama itself.
In the theories that see drama as a development from primitive religious ritesthe dramatist is often described as a descendant of the priest. Theatrical representation could have arisen first from the substitution of an animal for a human sacrificesay, a goat for a virgin or a young warrior.
In time, the formula of the sacrifice might have been enacted ritualistically without the actual sacrifice of the animal.
Oedipus RexOedipus, demonstrating an excess of presumption or hubris in his confidence that he has escaped the prophecy of Apollo's oracle, sees that he has been mistaken and that—just as foretold—he has married his mother and killed his father. He therefore blinds himself. However, other explanations for the origin of drama have been offered.
Mimesisthe artistic representation or imitation of an event, has been discerned in such rituals as war danceswhich are intended to frighten the enemy and instill courage into the hearts of the participants. These dances may imitate the action of battle itself, or at least the way in which the participants hope to see the battle develop.
The origins of drama have also been attributed to simple storytelling, as when the storyteller adopts a false voice or adds characterization through movement and costume. In such terms, the art of theatre could be described at its most fundamental as the presence of an actor before an audience.
Whatever the primary motivation, the first systematic elaboration of theatre can be seen through the work of the Greek playwrights of 5th-century-bce Athens.
Aeschylus apparently inherited a form that consisted of a single actor responding to or leading a chorus. His innovation is generally considered to have been the use of a second actor, and it was either Aeschylus or Sophocles who added a third actor as they competed each year for prizes in the Great Dionysia.
Once a third actor appeared, the chorus gradually declined, and it was the multiplying individual characters who assumed importance.
In this way, ancient Greece left to posterity a measure of specialization among theatrical performers. Beyond these formal elements, however, Classical drama offers a pattern of development that has been reenacted continually in other cultures throughout history. The rapid rise and decline of drama in ancient Athens paralleled the rise and decline of Athenian civilization itself.
Great periods of achievement in theatre have tended to coincide with periods of national expansion and achievement, as in Elizabethan England. Conversely, periods of excessive materialism, such as those during which ancient Greece or ancient Rome declined, tend to produce theatre in which ostentation, spectacle, and vulgarity predominate.
Probably more than in other arts, each theatrical style represents an amalgamation of diverse heritages.This article contains a treatment of the art of theatre in the most general terms, an attempt to illuminate what it is and why it has been regarded as a fundamental human activity throughout history.
An extensive treatment of the elements of theatre can be found in theatrical production. And so to a play in which suffering makes up the very texture of the text. King Lear is a play that makes one almost believe that when Shakespeare sat down to write it he made a list of every painful thing that human beings could do to each other.
Essay about Human Existence and Human Suffering - All throughout our history, we humans have constantly evolved and developed to an extent where we can give an account to the world we live in.
Surely the reason for human suffering is one of the greatest answers of all. Mankind’s suffering is no accident. It is actually one of the most marvelous tools within God’s Plan of producing sons who have developed His character within them.
The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music is an work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It was reissued in as The Birth of Tragedy, Or: Hellenism and Pessimism. The later edition contained a prefatory essay, "An Attempt at Self-Criticism", wherein Nietzsche commented on this earliest book.
Throughout The Plague, Camus uses religious symbolism to contribute to the overarching theme of the absurdity of human existence. The events that take place in the town of Oran eventually lead Dr.
Rieux, the main character, to have a better understanding of the meaning and purpose of man’s existence.